Castello di San Giusto (Trieste)
The hill was originally occupied by a fortified prehistoric village, which later became an important Roman settlement; its ruins can still be visited today. The castle, built by the Venetians during the Middle Ages, was pulled down in 1381 on the orders of the Patriarch of Aquileia and rebuilt in 1470 by Frederick III of Austria. It was re-fortified in 1508-1509 when Triest briefly came under Venetian rule; work continued when Austria regained possession of the city and in 1630 it was furnished with large bastions and interconnecting walls. For centuries the castle was the residence of the Austrian governor and played an important strategic role up until WW2. Close to the castle there is the 14th-century cathedral of San Giusto, built upon the ruins of two previous churches - a 5th-century basilica erected over the original Roman temple, and the 11th-century church of Our Lady of the Assumption, containing a chapel dedicated to St. Just. The massive bell tower dates from 1337.